Treatment for Endometrial Cancer
Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that affects the lining of the uterus. It is one of the most common types of gynecological cancer and affects urban women primarily after menopause.
The symptoms of endometrial cancer may include abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge, pelvic pain, and difficulty urinating. Fortunately, several treatment options are available for endometrial cancer, ranging from surgery to radiation therapy and Chemotherapy. In this article, we will explore the diagnosis and various treatment options for endometrial cancer.
So let’s begin.
Diagnosis of Endometrial Cancer
There are multiple steps involved in the diagnosis of Endometrial cancer. Let’s take a look at them one by one.
Step 1: Sonography
This is the most important step in diagnosing endometrial cancer.
During this sonography, we check the endometrial thickness of the uterus. Endometrial thickness varies in different phases.
Generally, its thickness in mm equals the number of post-menstrual cycle days. So in the first 8 to 10 days, its thickness is 8 to 10mm.
We consider a thickness of up to 15 mm as normal. But if the thickness is more than 15 mm, it’s a risk factor and hence needs an evaluation.
The next step is Dilation and Curettage (D&C)
Step 2: Dilation and Curettage (D&C)
During this step, we clean the uterus under anesthesia and collect the tissue samples for the tests in the laboratory.
Step 3: Hysteroscopic Biopsy
Some patients have small polyps in their uterus. In these cases, Hysteroscopic Biopsy is a better option.
In this process, we examine the inner tissues with Hysteroscope and collect tissue samples from the abnormal area.
These tissues are then sent for evaluation in the pathological lab.
Step 4: MRI scan
Magnetic Resonance Imaging or MRI is a very effective way to determine the cancer stage.
Step 5: PET scan
A PET scan is used to determine whether cancer has spread into other areas of the body.
Now let’s move on to the treatment of Endometrial Cancer
Treatments for Endometrial Cancer
Almost 90% of Endometrial cancer patients are diagnosed in the early stage, which is very good for the treatment.
The success rate of the treatment in such patients is very high. Let’s check out the treatment options available
Surgery is the best treatment option if the patient has been diagnosed with stage 1 endometrial cancer.
Most of the patients just need surgery for a complete cure. During the surgery, we remove the uterus and the ovaries and pelvic/retroperitoneal lymph nodes .
If the patient is younger, we try to save the ovaries. But we have to remove the uterus and pelvic lymph nodes near the uterus.
In the case of serous and Papillary Carcinoma, we also have to remove a layer (omentum) of fat.
If the cancer is in the early stage, the cure rate with the surgery is up to 96%.
If cancer has advanced and spread to other organs like the urinary bladder or rectum, we can also treat that with surgery.
But the cure rate drops to 86-88% in these cases. But in these you need chemo/radiation as an extra factor.
After the surgery, depending on the final histopathology report, we decide if the patient needs some additional treatment. For locally aggressive tumors we recommend radiation or radiation therapy.
For e.g., if cancer has spread to Myometrium, we recommend Radiation therapy after the surgery.
Radiation therapy is also advised for patients in whom cancer has spread to the rectum or urinary bladder.
If cancer has spread to the stomach or lymph nodes, we recommend Chemotherapy to the patient.
The most common form of cancer surgery today is Laparoscopic or robotic surgery.
We adopt the keyhole method where we have to make a minor incision or 5 mm or 10 mm at max.
The specimen comes out from the uterine cavity. This ensures quick healing, eliminates complications, and the patient can be discharged on the second or third day.
Note: If cancer has advanced and spread extensively to other body parts, we recommend Chemotherapy or high-dose progesterone therapy.
With the advancement in technology and medical research, now it’s very easy to treat endometrial cancer, especially in the early stage.
We hope this brief article has helped you get an insight into the treatment options available for endometrial cancer.
If you want to know more about this treatment, you can always reach out to us. Our experts will offer you proper insight and help.
Dr. Nilesh is a renowned surgeon/ consultant practicing infinity media surge hospital, and Navkaar cancer clinic Mumbai and he is also visiting consultant at various hospitals in Mumbai, Thane, Dombivali, Kalyan, Navi Mumbai etc. With over 10+years of experience, he is highly trained and specialized in performing cancer surgery procedures from simplest to the most complicated surgeries.